โอลด์สคูลจังเกิล (อังกฤษ: Oldschool jungle) เป็นแนวเพลงแดนซ์ประเภทหนึ่งที่มีความใกล้เคียงกับดนตรีดรัมแอนด์เบส ได้รับอิทธิพลจาก เบรกบีตฮาร์ดคอร์ เทคโน แรร์กรูฟ และ เร้กเก้/ดั๊บ/แดนซ์ฮอลล์. ลักษณจะออกเป็นแนวเร้กเก้ รวมกับจังหวะเบรกบีตที่รวดเร็วไปด้วย
Jungle is a genre of electronic music that incorporates influences from other genres, including breakbeat hardcore and reggae/dub/dancehall. The fast tempos (150 to 170 bpm) breakbeats, other heavily syncopated percussive loops, samples and synthesized effects makes up the easily recognizable form of jungle. Producers create the drum patterns featured; sometimes completely off-beat, by cutting apart breakbeats (most notably the Amen break). Long pitch-shifted snare rolls are also common in oldschool jungle.
Jungle producers incorporated classic Jamaican/Caribbean sound-system culture production-methods. The slow, deep basslines and simple melodies (reminiscent of those found in dub, reggae and dancehall) accentuated the overall production, giving jungle its “rolling” quality.
The term Jungle
While the use of the word to describe what is now known as jungle is debatable, the emergence of the term in relation to electronic music circles can be roughly traced to lyrics used in Jamaican toasting (a pre-cursor to modern MCs), circa 1970. References to ‘jungle’, ‘junglists’ and ‘jungle music’ can be found throughout dub, reggae and dancehall genres from that era up until today.
Interestingly, and possibly just coincidentally, the term “jungle music” was used to describe music by Duke Ellington in the 1920-30’s. With African musical and drumming influences they played a rhythmic, exotic sound advertised as “jungle music” and “the jungle sound”, the band at that time was often named The Jungle Band on flyers.
It has been suggested that the term ‘Junglist’ was a reference to a person either from a ghetto of Kingston known as ‘The Concrete Jungle’ or from a different suburb, ‘The Gardens’, which was a leafy area colloquially referred to as ‘The Jungle’.
The first documented use of the term is within a song featuring jungle producer and lyricist Rebel MC. In which a sample was taken from a much older dancehall tune containing the lyrics “Rebel got this chant – “‘alla the junglists”.
Smiley & PJ from Shut Up and Dance were once not let into a club by a bouncer claiming “We don’t play your jungle music here”, referring to the more drum oriented oldskool hardcore. They started to use the term themselves.
At one time there was even some confusion and debate as to whether the use of the word “jungle” was a racist referral to its apparently blacker, reggae-influenced sound and fans as it was the black youth of Britain who fueled the early Jungle and drum and bass scenes. Jungle shares a number of similarities with hip hop. First, both genres have been referred to as “black music. When jungle first gained popularity, it received many of the same complaints that hip hop music first did: It was “too dark” and downbeat, glorified violence and gangs and had a focus on rhythm. Both genres of music are produced using the same types of equipment: samplers, drum machines, microphones and sequencers. Furthermore, the music contains the same sort of components such as “rhythmic complexity, repetition with subtle variations, the significance of the drum, melodic interest in bass frequencies and breaks in pitch and time.”
Some early proponents preferred to define the “jungle” element as representing the deeper and darker sound of the heavy beats and bass lines, while others saw a connection with tribal drumming, percussion and simplicity.
Producers and DJs of the early 1990s, such as MC 5ive ‘0, Groove Connection and Kingsley Roast, place the origin of the word in the scene with pioneers like Moose, Soundman and Johnny Jungle.
“…a guy called Johnny Jungle – he is the first person I always quote. … As soon as the breakbeat started he was calling it that.”
The emergence of the jungle sound
See also: History of drum and bass
In the summer of 1992, a Thursday night club in London called “Rage” was changing format in response to the commercialization of the rave scene (see breakbeat hardcore). Resident DJs Fabio and Grooverider, amongst others, began to take the hardcore sound to a new level. The speed of the music increased from 120bpm to 145bpm, while more ragga and dancehall elements were brought in and techno, disco and house influences were decreased.
Eventually, the music became too fast and difficult to be mixed with more traditional rave music, creating a division with the other popular electronic genres. When Hardcore lost the four-on-the-floor beat and created percussive elements solely from “chopped up” breakbeats, people began to use the terms ‘jungle’, ‘junglist’ and ‘junglism’ to describe the music itself. This was reflected in track titles of the era, typically from late 1992 and early 1993.
The club ‘Rage’ finally shut its doors in 1993, but the new legion of “Junglists” had evolved, changing dancing styles for the faster music, enjoying the off-beat rhythms and with less reliance on the chemical stimulation of the rave era.